ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE, SATISFACTION AND STAFF MOTIVATION IN SMALL RESTAURANTS PORTE
Vol.6, No.3, pp.71-94,
ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE, SATISFACTION AND STAFF MOTIVATION IN SMALL RESTAURANTS PORTE
DULCELENE APARECIDA DE LUCENA FREITAS (UNIMEP- DULCELENE3@YAHOO.COM.BR 55-19-31241560) GRAZIELA OSTE GRAZIANO (UNIMEP – GRAZIELA.GRAZIANO@GMAIL.COM 55-19-997627009) YEDA CIRERA OSWALDO (UNIMEP – YOSWALDO@UNIMEP.BR – 55-19-997728042) DAGMAR SILVA PINTO DE CASTRO (UNIMEP – DSCASTRO@UNIMEP.BR – 55-19-999206663) VALÉRIA RUEDA ELIAS SPERS (UNIMEP – VRUEDA@UNIMEP.BR – 55-19-997826961
ABSTRACT he AIMS study to diagnose, present and discuss the management and the climate in view of employees of the restaurants associated with ACIPA – Association of Paracatu dealers. For date Collected Questionnaires Were applied with closed questions Which can be applied in other establishments with the same characteristics and problems. The results of the survey show que companies Evaluated in the point of view of the respondents, it is not a good place to work, through the variables que Indicate dissatisfaction with the sites in question stands out: the lack of leadership; low pay; the failure of the benefits Offered by the company; demotivation Caused by lack of training que enable employees to the duties Performed; the lack of dialogue between leadership and led; the lack of resources to carry out the work. The climate diagnostic point decisive factors Justifying the turnover and absenteeism in the restaurants in question.
Keywords: Turnover. Organizational Climate .Satisfaction. Motivation.
1.INTRODUCTION The population is spending most of his life in the corporate environment, schools or any other activities outside their home environment, where they develop and pursue their personal and professional achievements (VERGARA, 2000). Therefore, increase the search for meals were home “foodservice” as cafeterias, bars and restaurants. But not always well attended by professionals of these locations, and on the one hand the practicality is required, satisfaction lacking. What should be taken into account, is that sometimes the service to the public, is a reflection of the environment and climate work, establishing a relationship between the companies, the employee and the external customer (CARVALHO, 1999). Before speaking of outpatient satisfaction, organizations should be aware on your first customer (internal client), but it should be noted, because it is the main capital of the organization. It is a mutual relationship where both tend to come out winning, through the exchanges that are to each other, to achieve the objectives, as stated (Motta & Vasconcelos, 2002). It should be understood that for an individual to be satisfied in an organization, their motivations and needs must be met. From the moment in which an organization works with satisfied employees, ends up creating a healthy organizational climate, where the turnover rate and absenteeism tends to fall, and productivity as you expected (SANT’ANNA, 2002). The organizational climate involves the results and the influences of the organization in relation to culture and the standards by which the company is guided, being a major factor in the analysis of its present state and even future, indicating how are the internal relations of organization and how they relate to their external customers. Thus, in view of the above, the question is: What factors determine the organizational climate of Paracatu restaurants are satisfactory, minimizing turnover and dissatisfaction of employees? As a general objective sought Diagnosing the organizational climate, restaurants associated with ACIPA – Association of Paracatu dealers. The specific objectives of the research were: to raise determinants of organizational climate; verify the relationship between managers and employees; assess the degree of satisfaction and motivation of the restaurants and its implications on organizational climate and investigate factors related to organizational turnover and absenteeism
2.ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE: CONCEPTS AND EVALUATION As a result of the organizational culture has the organizational climate, which can briefly be understood as the consequence of culture, interfering with relationships, values and organizational policies. The organizational climate will be a phenomenon resulting from the interaction of the elements of culture, as precepts, character and technology. If the culture is understood as a set of behaviors within an organization by individuals, organizational climate is the factor that will influence this behavior, by the way employees in a collective way perceive the organization, affecting their motivation, their satisfaction and their commitment to the organization. As we all know whatever the organization, people are fundamental, the weather will have its origin in the contribution that each individual will bring to her, not only to prevailing professional experiences, courses, and training, but rather the experiences of life, values and traditions. And what should shape the style of that leadership, will be the organizational climate model. Given the organizational climate knowledge, you can even trace the profile of professionals and customers that the organization attracts, knowing what to focus on, and what to charge and expect those who are involved in their processes. In addition, the administration comes up as the first customer, the employee, so the image of the company should be sold primarily to its employees through its organizational climate and captivate you through it, so wear the shirt of company, and is dedicated to the achievement of organizational goals and your personal goals (GIL, 2001). Following will de Souza line of reasoning (1978), the construction of this organizational climate, will be through the income that an individual receives before the application or otherwise of its goals, which most often are economical. But to be realistic to conclude that in the minds of employees, those desires will almost never met, because the salary is never enough for your personal desires are met. To find out what levels are the motivations of employees, companies are using evaluation research of organizational climate, increasingly common habit, due to the process of globalization and expansion of technology, which are forcing organizations to mix the most diverse cultures in their staffs, which is not well-crafted, can lead to instability within an organization, since these processes are positive because bring together people with the highest qualifications, however, becomes negative when the same, may experience conflicts of experiences and cultures. And the research of organizational climate, will be a barometer of the extent to which the organization is being positive in your modifications (LIGHT 1996). According to Johann (2004), as each organization is in a way, no organizational climate survey will be identical to another, but some steps can serve as a basis to guide managers, they are: Step 01 – obtain support and approval for the research; Step 02 – set company goals and their planning; Step 03 – choose and develop the application of research methodology; Step 04 – pilot test; Step 05 – parameterization; Step 06 – dissemination of research; Step 07 – the questionnaire and data collection; Step 08 – tabulation and analysis of results; Step 09 – generate reports and feedback to all members of the organization; Step 10 – development of action plans covering possible solutions; Step 11 – to assist the implementation and management of the action plan; Step 12 – the result of analysis and action plan; Step 13 – Apply new climate survey to analyze the results of the action plan; Step 14 – compare results with previous research Light (. 2006, p 25) has two ways to assess climate: sectoral assessment and corporate or institutional review:
3.TURNOVER, SATISFACTION AND MOTIVATION The staff turnover or turnover, is defined by Milioni (2006, p. 165) as “personal study technique that leaves the organization and who enters the same, as well as the internal movement of people.” To Pomi (2003), turnover or turnover is a term used to define the entry and exit of employees of companies in a given time. The employee turnover can be influenced by several factors, internal or external, may or may not be avoided and inherent in some cases, the will of the manager, the employee and the company (MEZOMO, 1981). According to Campos and Malik (2008), among the reasons why an employee leaves or remain in the company, there is the study of the relationship between turnover and the satisfaction trabalho.De According to Ferreira and Freire (2001), among the factors cited as a cause of output workers of the companies are: the lack of wage and benefit policies; work and inadequate leadership; dissatisfaction and lack of personal motivation and professional exposure in exhausting work. The labor market today, should not worry about your employee only in the category “hiring” but rather, through a modern people management, the human resources department, you should invest in training, orientation and training thereof. Every employee must be trained and qualified individually, considering the differences in people to people. According to Ribeiro (2006), it is for human resources the power to differentiate professionals with whom they work daily and must satisfy the individuals, knowing that each has a different life history, skills and competencies. Not using people just as the organization’s resources, but, taking into account their personal qualities. As stated Castelli (2001), personal qualities are necessary for professional and affects the interaction with customers. The personal quality is obtained by the sum of innate abilities of each individual and all related elements through education and training. It is this quality which employees are reproduced at the time that they are interacting with clients. Based on this assumption, it is possible that the management of people in small restaurants, through their respective processes has an administrative function that can be seen in a more positive light by the staff, from the time that it realizes that the company is investing in its potential, feel safer and motivated to perform that function or longing. To Srour (2000), it is for human resources provide strategies in order to manage conflict between the expectations generated by staff and managers. Organizations combine social agents and resources and become an instrument of “struggling economy” (Srour, 2000, p. 107). Potentiate the numerical strength and become the preferred land on which cooperative actions occur in a coordinated manner. From the moment that employees perceive professional growth opportunities, committed to the development of the company, where it would benefit, especially with declining turnover. As previously discussed people are the foundation of any institution, they are driving the growth or also its failure. Currently has become something essential for business to have satisfied and motivated employees as it is with the same companies that have achieved their goals in this competitive market which is daily updated with new technologies and new business models. For organizations to remain prepared you need to think about having employees working with joy, dedication, commitment and pride, and to achieve this we must work motivation, so they are willing to give their best for the institution.
4.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research methodology is used to guide studies, as the way to drive data to the final results. According Demo (1981, p.7) “Methodology is the study of ways, the instruments used to do science.” Following this idea, this topic will aim to present the methodology used for the construction of this study. The methodology in research can be classified as in its means, and in their purposes. As for purposes Vergara (. 1998, p 45) says it may be: “exploratory, descriptive, explanatory, methodological, applied or intervention.” Initially the study fits in exploratory, descriptive and diagnostic research. To Malhotra (2005) exploratory research is used to “explore the situation of the problem.” For Gil (1996: 45-46.) “. The descriptive research has as main objective the description of certain population characteristics or phenomenon or else the establishment of relationships between variables” Diagnostic of Roesch (1996) describes that formative avalição directly involved in the current situation by providing opportunities for improvement. The literature review was crucial to create the foundation of what will be tested in practice, as the issues of motivation and satisfaction, and their influences on turnover rates in these establishments. As literature sought books, periodicals and bank theses and dissertations. teams of the restaurants, to understand what really organizations are developing, their routines and what is said in theory, may be found in practice. In addition to that, it was at this point of contact with the problem that the research was directed, as the circumstances and guided observations is that directed the methodological study. The city of Paracatu MG, located in the northwest of Minas Gerais, now has more than 100 thousand inhabitants, this number increases every year, as the city today besides the two large mining companies located in the municipality also has faculties, for tenants . With the city’s development, increases the number of services that meet this demand. The branch that stands out most is the food, but this time of expansion is noticed that the local workforce is insufficient to meet the wishes of customers and managers, it is a higher turnover complaint branch, which aimed to study the organizational climate of establishments providing this type of service. The restaurants chosen for research are small, the type of service offered is self service, where customers have the option of serving, eating only what they like or you need a faster way. Was used as a search filter only restaurants accredited in ACIPA (Commercial and Industrial Association of Paracatu) of the city of Paracatu – MG. Currently ACIPA has 19 registered restaurants of which only 03 sites were used for the study, po rter on staff a fixed number of employees, contractors, while other contract only for large events, with one or two fixed. The data in the restaurants were collected through a questionnaire with closed questions, addressing questions on satisfaction and motivation of people. Before applying the final model of the questionnaire carried out a pre-test to better adequacy. It was then decided by the questionnaire with closed questions, such as data collection source, in which 36 employees were interviewed with: restaurant “A” 19, restaurant “B” 8e restaurant “C” 9 employees. According to Gil (1996: 90.): Data were analyzed quantitatively using as a tool IBM SPSS Statistics Data Editor, version 19. Secondly the data were analyzed qualitatively, being necessary to search in the researched theories to understand the data being observed (Richardson, 1999).
5.DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF RESULTS In this chapter, the results is presented in the form of tables and figures on the application of the questionnaire to employees of small restaurants in the city of Paracatu. We interviewed 36 employees and the total sample of three restaurants chosen for the job. Initially we analyze the following variables regarding the organizational environment: variables friends; Self-realization; family; financial implementation; personal fulfillment; professional achievement; security; status or prestige and their importance to the employee regarding the workplace. Regarding the results of the variable friends on respondents. To note that 63% of respondents find it very important to have friends in the workplace, 30.6% said it was important and only 2% consider this variable be of little importance. According to the responses, it appears that 58% of people rate the selfrealization as very important in the work, the 38% point is important and 2.8%, represented by a person between 36 find unimportant this point in the workplace. The analysis of this result shows that 97% of respondents, totaling 35 responses from a sample of 36 people, the family in the workplace is very important, only 2.8% (1 reply) describes as important. The result can be related to the second Vaz (2008) writes that the family support in the workplace is very important in professional success and consequently generating satisfaction for the employee, relieving internal conflicts and their effects. The results obtained in this matter the percentage of 77% related to the very important item and 22% identified as important, points out that no official pointed to the minor or unimportant result. It follows that before the researched on the theory that every professional works to the financial realization, that is, expect to be rewarded by the developed tasks (MACHADO; SBORZ, 2009). Personal achievement is reported by 63% of respondents as very important, 30% important and 5.6% think it unimportant this item. This means that the “personal fulfillment” is a reinforcing factor among employees. When analyzing the degree of importance, it is observed that 38% (14 respondents) answered that it is very important to job satisfaction in the workplace, when that 55.6% (20 respondents) classified as important this variable and 5.6 % (2 respondents), no response points to unimportant. The present day highlight professional achievement as a relevant phenomenon when it comes to work unlike decades ago, where the work was seen only as a means of survival. Today in the XXI century, the work has taken on other forms of employee vision, becoming a means of growth and professional development, giving meaning and motivation to the duties performed (Silva 2012). Through the questionnaire realize that people feel conducted professionally, and most judges not be fully involved but partially. Respondents of the questionnaires showed that staff safety is very important, being represented by 47.2% of respondents, 44% said security is important and 8.3% indicated that security is unimportant. Many of the staff of the restaurants believe their work provides ̸ prestigious status, proof of this are the answers to the questionnaires in which 19.4% of respondents say they are very important status or prestige that the work is, 58% said to be important, 13 , 9% believe this to be unimportant variable and 8.3% unimportant. The relationship status or prestige to work is seen as the insertion of man in society (LACOMBE, 2005). The work done; the need to wage ̸ money; benefits that the company offers; the company’s line of business. The need to pay ̸ money, was appointed by the 36 respondents, totaling 100% as the main reason that causes people to remain in the company. For an organization to be successful, if the Paracatu restaurants are required that employees understand their goals and priorities, for this is very important to be clear and precise, the work makes sense only if one who performs know exactly which will drive you (Morin, 2001). It is observed by the results, that most respostam point to no knowledge of the company’s objectives and priorities in working, totaling 66.7%, as that 13.9% claim to know, 16.7% had no opinion and 2.8% did not answer. Reading that makes these data is that many do not know or do not know the reason of his work, with that end up not knowing or not giving due importance to the company. The company’s image, according to the respondents is between good (38.9%) and regular (55.6%), only 1pessoa (2.8%) thought was bad and 1 (2.8%) said it was great. This result may be linked to the chart above (11), justifying the lack of the company’s goal, and the employee is the first customer of the company. The organizational climate, in the view of the questionnaire respondents, remains unchanged for 58.3% of employees, 38.9% think that worsened as 2.8%, represented by a person, said to be better than before. This result can be negative to restaurants, is a high degree of dissatisfaction among employees, when the weather is healthy the tendency is to get employees involved increasingly with work and group integration (TANIGUCHI, COSTA, 2009). Before the result is perceived that the proposed changes by the employees is rarely well accepted represented by 61.1% of respondents, 36.1% said they often suggestions are accepted and only 2.8% said they never succeeded the suggested changes. Thus, 47.2% of respondents said they rarely feel pressured about the pace of work, 44.4% answered that they are almost always pressed, 5.6% feel they are always pressured and 2.8% never felt this pressure. The pace of work in small restaurants is exhausting, everything has to be very fast, the client does not have time to wait for your meal to be prepared, hopes to reach and serve (Lippel 2002). This situation causes the employee to work more dynamically, which can be mistaken as pressure, which are included in the most prominent responses.
The working environment in the employee view is not favorable, is showing the results presented, 55.6% of respondents said they almost always the weather is good, rarely highlighted good 30.6% of respondents, 11.1% said which is always good and 2.8% said there is no satisfactory climate in restaurants. The working environment in the employee view is not favorable, is showing the results presented, 55.6% of respondents said they almost always the weather is good, rarely highlighted good 30.6% of respondents, 11.1% said which is always good and 2.8% said there is no satisfactory climate in restaurants. Among the answer is the highlight in the number of respondents who indicate that they are rarely recognized by the success of that work, represented by 66.7%, as 27.8% claim to be recognized and 5.6% never received the recognition of job success or work performed. The recognition of the successful work done causes the employee to perform his duties better and feel satisfaction that performs, when it does not generate the frustration, low-income and abandonment Of the 36 respondents to the questionnaire, 61.1% said they rarely the company provides training that meet the needs of areas that act 22.2% reported that they are almost always trained, 13.9% said they had never been trained and 2.8 % who are always trained for the job they do. Training in the restaurant area is important to be constant, being a high turnover industry and acquisition of new equipment, the trained employee feels safer to develop their role and the company gains in agility and safety of the environment. Communication between the immediate supervisors and employees is critical to the climate of the company, and it must be clear and precise, for the avoidance of doubt and do not generate discomfort by the parties (FIDELIS And Banov 2006) .The communication allows the employee to meet and interact more with the goals and expectations of the company. Through the results we note that employees feel the lack of this tool, which can adversely impact as internal customer, the company’s vision for them. Of the respondents 55.6% say there is rarely that clear communication, 22.2% report that almost always the case, and 22% say that this never happens clear communication. Regarding the design of the respondents consider as the company they work for, responding if the company is a good place to work; the leadership of the company can fulfill its role; if the remuneration is fair for their office; if the benefits offered by the company meet the needs; if the working time is in accordance with the provisions of the contract; if the employee is motivated for personal growth through training; if the relationship between management and the employee happens amicably and the features offered are compatible with the work done. The result comes down to dissatisfaction, lack of motivation of employees on the company you work, which justifies the statements in previous variables as shown in Table 10, which is related the main reason to stay in business, with 100% of respondents opted by the need of money. In view of the employees, or most of them, through the responses to the questionnaire, it is observed that the communication by the leadership is not satisfactory, that is, the leader cannot fulfill its role. Another variable that stands out is the salary issue, as it considers its lower salary than the importance of their role, thus not motivated to like that play.
6.FINAL CONSIDERATIONS This study aimed to diagnose the organizational climate of the small restaurants in the city of Paracatu MG, in which we sought to raise the determinants of organizational climate, verify the relationship between managers and employees, evaluate the degree of satisfaction and motivation employees and its implications on organizational climate and investigate factors related to organizational turnover and absenteeism. The end result of this research shows, albeit briefly, because the weather is not permanent but is in accordance with the requirements at the time experienced by each employee, there is need for more managers take heed to the human capital of the company, know the needs and more wishes of the employees and the company is only going to win, the more satisfied they have more productive they will be. It can be seen through the information obtained, dissatisfaction and demotivation of staff to continue working in the company providing service of the variables, the biggest complaint is the lack of recognition for service, low pay, lack of dialogue with supervisors and poor quality of work life, which implies directly in the mood. The climate in the companies proves to be troubled and unsatisfactory, justified by the degree of dissatisfaction shown by the respondents through the questionnaire. We conclude that the diagnosis of organizational climate is an important tool, allows managers to evaluate and understand the behavior of employees, investigate the factors linked to low productivity, absenteeism and turnover. It is suggested that in the future are made similar surveys in all the restaurants in town, with fixed or non-employees. The search was limited in the sense of non-cooperation on the part of managers, where they limited the application of the questionnaire only to employees, hindering the perception of the climate in view of them. It is suggested that in the future it includes an interview with managers. Interestingly, the result of this research is reviewed by each manager of the studied restaurants and other business establishments, in order to understand the satisfaction and dissatisfaction, which motivates its employees or not, and they understand that in the first place are customers internal (your employees) and through them is that they get the satisfaction of external customers (consumers).
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